Four species of seagrass
U Jadranu i cijelom Sredozemlju raspoznajemo četiri vrste morskih cvjetnica koje su zakonom zaštićene; posidonija ili oceanski porost (Posidonia oceanica), čvorasta morska resa (Cymodocea nodosa), morska svilina (Zostera marina) i patuljasta svilina (Zostera noltii). Gusta i prostrana naselja morskih cvjetnica najproduktivnija su staništa u Jadranu koja sežu od površine do 40 metara dubine. U našem postavu možete pobliže upoznati njihove najčešće stanovnike poput riba iz porodice usnjača (kosirica, vrana), riba iz porodice ljuskavki (salpa, pic, i dr.), crneja, ali donedavnog vrlo čestog endemskog školjkaša, plemenitu perisku.
(Posidonia oceanica, (L.) Delile)
Posidonija je endemska vrsta Sredozemnog mora koja na pjeskovitom ili muljevitom dnu gradi prostrane livade koje predstavljaju utočište za više od 20% vrsta. Procijenjeno je da zdrave i dobro razvijene livade proizvode više od 14 L/m² kisika u 24 sata. Nažalost, u zadnjih 50 godina bilježimo povlačenje (regresiju) njezina rasta za 34% u cijelom Sredozemlju. Na njezinu degradaciju najviše utječu ljudske aktivnosti poput sidrenja, a za obnovu samo 1 m2 potrebno je čak 100 godina.
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Did you know that the organism with the longest lifespan in the Mediterranean is Neptune grass? It has been determined that its leaf bases are more than 2000 and up to 3000 years old. In addition, Neptune grass is the only seagrass whose rhizomes (roots) also grow vertically. In this way, they avoid growing into the sediment, thereby forming bioconstructions – submarine terraces (mattes) – which slowly and consistently rise: up to 1 m every 100 years.
(Pinna nobilis, Linnaeus, 1758)
Noble pen shell
The noble pen shell is the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean, whose shell grows to more than 1 m and which filters 4000 litres of seawater a day. Since 2016, due to the devastating impact of the parasite Haplosporidium pinnae, and the synergistic influence of bacteria (Mycobacterium sp.), there has been a massive dying out of the noble pen shell in the Mediterranean. It is estimated that only 100 living animals remain in open waters, while lagoons in Spain, France and Italy house some 100,000 individuals. To preserve the noble pen shell, in 2019, Aquarium Pula founded a rescue centre for the noble pen shell (“Noble Sanctuary”).
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Critically endangered noble pen shells are representatives of a group of keystone species, vital species of marine ecosystems. It is well-established that their shells form a habitat for almost 40 animal species and algae, which require a hard substrate for growth and development in areas with mainly a sandy or silty seabed.
(Sarpa salpa, Linnaeus, 1758)
Salema porgy belongs to the Sparidae family and is characterised by the golden-yellow horizontal stripes along its body. Of interest is that grown individuals are plant eaters, while young individuals feed mainly on shrimp (crustaceans). Salema porgy is a hermaphroditic species that changes its sex from male to female during its lifetime (known as protandric hermaphroditism).
(Chromis chromis, Linne, 1758)
The Mediterranean chromis has an oval and laterally compressed body with recognisably large eyes and inhabits the sea at a depth of 2 to 40 m. The youngest individuals are blue, while the bodies of adults are dark brown. The type of rocky seabed is key, as it plays an important part in the transfer of nutrients (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous), and nano-minerals from the open sea to the coastal area.
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They are considered a biological indicator of clean seas; they are found in significantly fewer numbers in seawater of lower quality and in very noisy environments.
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