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Rocky Habitats

The rocky bottom is part of the infralittoral steps of the Adriatic, which spreads from the intertidal zone to the depth of thirty metres and is permanently covered by seawater. Preconditions of shaping a rocky habitat are strong sea currents and the biogenic hardening of the seabed which form the basis of this community.

(Sparus aurata, Line, 1758)

Gilt-headed bream

The gilt-headed bream is one of the most represented cage-bred species and is unique in that it has a strong and well-developed jaw with multiple rows of teeth, which make crushing bivalves and molluscs easier. Its lifespan is 11 years, its maximum length is 70 cm (on average, it grows to about 33-40 cm) and its maximum weight is 17 kg. It is a hermaphrodite which changes its sex during its lifetime (so-called protandric hermaphroditism), which is why we call it the “queen of the sea”, as all larger individuals are female.

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During the spawning season, from the end of September to November, in search of deeper waters, the sea bream migrates from Venice and passes through Slovenia and Istria towards the south, representing the leading target species for fishing. However, it's only in the last decade that there has been an increase in the catch of wild sea bream. The reasons for the increase in the abundance of sea bream in the sea are climate changes (as sea bream is a eurythermal species that prefers warmer waters), escape from fish farms, and the cultivation of shellfish on farms, where they find abundant food and cause significant damage (destroying up to 90% of the yield).

(Dicentrarchus labrax, Line, 1758)

European bass

Another Croatian name for the European bass is “lubin” from the Latin “lupus”, meaning wolf, which depicts it as a predatory fish. It has a long jaw filled with sharp teeth for catching fast and mobile prey. It feeds primarily on crustaceans, shrimp, molluscs and fish. Males reach sexual maturity at two years of age or when they are between 23 to 30 cm long, females at around 3-4 years of age or between 31 to 40 cm in length.

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Did you know that temperature and salinity are the main oceanographic parameters that determine the sex of sea bass? In the natural environment, the sex ratio of sexually mature individuals ranges from 52% to 69.5% females compared to males, while in hatcheries, this ratio is 75% to 95% males compared to females. Sea bass can tolerate a wide temperature range from 8 to 24°C and a broad range of salinity levels.

(Diplodus vulgaris, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817)

Common two-banded sea bream

Fratar je najbrojnija pridnena riba kamenitih staništa koju krase dvije crne mrlje; na škržnom poklopcu i kod repne peraje. Kao i sve vrste iz porodice ljuskavki (Sparidae), dvospolac je koji mijenja spol ovisno o veličini. U Jadranu je rasprostranjena uzduž cijelog obalnog pojasa, a najčešće je možemo pronaći uz zapadnu obalu Istre.

Did you know the common two-banded seabream is considered a long-lived species in the Adriatic Sea? Females, in particular, can live up to 11 years, reach a weight of up to 797g, and have a body length ranging from 14.5 to 37.5 cm. On the other hand, males have a shorter lifespan, usually up to 10 years, with a body length ranging from 14.5 to 36.2 cm and a weight of up to 760 g.

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Explore the life of the rocky habitats of the Adriatic Sea